Sierra Leone is bordered around the north-west, south west and north-east by simply the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia in addition to on south-west simply by the Atlantic Ocean. It has a good area of 28, 925 square mls. The colony associated with Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a piece associated with land intended as a home for African-american settlers who were waifs in London plus later it had been used as some sort of settlement for freed African slaves. The particular hinterland was reported a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence upon 27th April, 1961 and became the Republic in year 1971. Education is offered by both non-public and state-sponsored colleges. The current program of education will be 6-3-4-4 (that is usually six years Main school, three years Junior Secondary School, 4 years Senior Secondary School and four yrs tertiary/higher education. This specific system is complemented by non- formal education.
CONCEPT INVOLVING TRAINING
Education is usually frequently found in typically the sense of training in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or domestic science space and consists mostly in the imparting by the teacher, plus the acquisition by simply pupils, of information and mental as well as guide skills. A wider meaning than coaching is that involving schooling. In other words most that goes about inside the school because part of the particular pupil’s life right now there. It includes, among various other things, relationship between pupils and educators, pupils and enrollees both in and even outside the college. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter what helps to form the human getting; to make the particular individual what he or she is or hinder him from becoming what he is not necessarily is portion of their education. Implicitly training is lifelong and even ubiquitous; it is the amount total of all influences which move to create a person what he is, by birth to death. It includes the property, our neighbors, plus the street among some others.
Education is in order to some extent a new deliberate planned procedure devised and conducted by the educator together with the purpose regarding imbuing the novice with certain data, skills, of brain and body since well as settings of behavior regarded desirable. In part it is the learner’s individual response to the surroundings in which this individual lives. Education features three focal points: the individual/person after whom the educator’s influences are introduced to bear; the particular society or community to which he belongs; and the particular whole context of reality within which in turn the individual and society play their own part. Man is a social animal; he grows as being a person through the particular impact of character on personality; plus even for their basic physical needs he depends upon what support and cooperation regarding his fellow adult men and women. Without having society and the particular mutual support and enrichment of activities which it provides civilization is impossible plus the life regarding man, in Hobbes’ words, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. inches
One of the fundamental facts of human existence will be the tension between the pull of the particular past and the particular forward urge in to the future, in between stability and change, tradition and innovation. For effective residing, man needs a circle of security, an area of founded habits and partnership which forms trustworthy relationships. This will be also true involving society. For it is effective functioning right now there must be a continuity of practices and outlook which preserves its personality as a community and safeguards that from the disruptive results of change. Switch must be for lifetime and not stationary but this alter in turn must be controlled simply by the basic cultures of society. That is tradition which gives a nation its character and distinctiveness as a modern society. The conservation associated with tradition therefore is usually obviously crucial.
That has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional schooling has a crucial part to participate in in the progress the child. The children these days are typically the adults of another day; they must be trained therefore, to will usually inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and settings of life odd to the particular society to which often they belong. Intended for every society provides the desire to maintain itself not only physically but since community consciously sharing selected aims, ideals and patterns of habits. This type involving education is not necessarily formal in schools by way of school room instruction but of which effected indirectly by way of the family in addition to with the impact in the individual regarding social influences and customs which the child cannot avoid. In fue included elaborate ceremonies of initiation including feats of stamina through which young guys and women should prove themselves worth the community. The particular ultimate goal was initially to produce an individual who was honest, respectful, skilled, cooperative, and who else could conform to typically the social order involving the day. Since Aristotle once mentioned “the constitution of a state will suffer if education and learning is neglected. The particular citizens of a state should usually be educated to match the constitution of the state. The kind of character best suited to a cosmetic is the run which continues to be able to sustain this it is also the state force which originally created it” (p. I).
CONVENTIONAL EDUCATION IN CULTURE
Traditional education has both an innovative plus conservation function within society; this can be a powerful means of conserving a society’s traditions, if not traditions. Previously the character and needs associated with society played part in determining the size of education. Professor M. V. C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his publication, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil community the educational system will certainly are likely to reflect the social pattern, when social uneasiness plus instability create possibility for using education and learning as an instrument of social change”(p. 7). A related view was distributed by John Dewey (1897) who opined that through schooling society can come up with its purposes, may organize its individual means and resources and thus help save itself with definiteness and economy inside the direction in which usually it wishes in order to move. Education appearances both towards the earlier and the upcoming; inevitably it demonstrates the traditions and even character of community. Traditional education enables you to prepare for adjustments in society plus anticipate and stop changes or the effects of changes in culture.
Traditional education conserves and hands upon the customs and even ways of life which constitute the smoothness of a community and maintains their unity. It in addition helps society to interpret its capabilities in new ways to be able to meet the issues of change, seeking ways or lines of development which are consistent with the traditions and customs and will as well raise society to a more complete completion of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE
Historical past reveals that right now there were no elegant schools where young children were educated throughout Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro in addition to Bondo/Sande Secret Societies were thought about as institutions to coach children. They were rose bush schools. And the particular education these rose bush schools provided seemed to be informal. Children which had these secret societies were considered effective at carrying out their civic obligations. They became older people and can marry and start lifestyle. They considered by themselves jointly family. In other words the two Secret Societies developed sense of comradeship and unity amongst members irrespective of family, clan or perhaps ethnic affiliation. This was therefore regarded that children that had not gone through these secret communities were not totally matured.
The Poro Secret Society is for boys. The particular spiritual head regarding the Poro Culture is Pa Gbonu, seen only from the older graduates or even members. The bodily heads are typically the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the particular activities of the company. The senior trainers are the Pa Kashis, who typically teach and give instructions to various other initiators. The Pennsylvania Manchiyas serve as teachers to the starts while the Kachemas are the scaring tones. They scare the women and youngsters alike alongside the new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying communications around. The Yambas are the head boys. The Bomos are definitely the senior prefects even though the Sayboms will be the prefects; plus the monitors will be the Gbanaboms. Informal classes are held in the Secret Poro Rose bush. The subjects educated include Creative Useful Arts, Performing Artistry, Practical Agriculture, Treatments i. e. usage of local herbs for that treatment of diverse ailments), warfare in addition to other skills. In Creative Practical Artistry initiates are educated how to make fishing nets, containers, mats, and etching wood and soap stones into various objects such as animals and individuals; in Performing Disciplines initiates are educated singing, dancing and even the use regarding Poro musical musical instruments. In Practical Farming initiates practice gardening. Boys are educated to bear hardship without complaint and grow familiar with it. Thus they may be taken to be able to the farms of their teachers and even elders to work on pro recibo basis. However in the course of the harvest time initiates could pass through these farms taking whatever they will need and eat with no being questioned by farm owners. Starts are taught in order to respect elders plus use of guns to kill pets or animals. In a similar vein initiates are taught how to use guns in fighting in security of their communities. Other skills starts are taught include making fish barriers, fishing and camping net, and basketry. Inside the use of herbs initiates spend money (some readily given) for curing various sicknesses as well as protection against opponents, evil spirits and even snake bites. Starts who wish to cause harm to others employing herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine worried. Over all starts are taught some sort of new Language talked only by people called Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika meaning I am talking to you; fonka bonomi that means Discuss. The use of this latest Language makes teachers very proud and feel different from non-initiates. Graduates are available out with new names such as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduating ceremony climaxes typically the event.